Author Topic: Herbal Remedies....  (Read 28 times)


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Re: Herbal Remedies....
« on: December 16, 2016, 05:46:01 am »
Angelica Information - Drug Interactions, Uses and Benefits
Taxonomic Class

Common Trade Names
The species Angelica sinensis, from which this agent gets its name, is known as dong quai or tang-kuei.

Common Forms
Available as cut, dried, or powdered root; essential oil; liquid extract; or tincture.

Active compounds are derived from the fruits, leaves, rhizomes, and roots of many species of Angelica, a perennial in the parsley family that includes A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. astragalus, A. atropurpurea, A. dahurica, A. edulis, A. gigas, A. japonica, A. keiskei, A. koreana, A. polymorpha, A. pubescens, A. radix, and A. sinensis.

Chemical Components
Various coumarins (angelicin, bergapten, imperatorin, oreoselone, osthol, oxypeucedanin, umbelliferone, xanthotoxol, and xanthotoxin) have been isolated from different Angelica species. The phenolic compound ferulic acid has been obtained from A. sinensis. Decursinol angelate is purified from the root of A. gigas. Two chalcones (xanthoangelol and 4-hydroxyderricin) have been isolated from A. keiskei.

Other compounds have been isolated from the roots and fruits of A. archangelica, such as terpene hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, lactones, aliphatic carbonyls, and other aromatic compounds. Polysaccharides, palmitic acid, and the flavonoid archangelenone have also been isolated. Other compounds found in the volatile oils include alpha- and beta-phellandrene, alpha-pinene, alpha-thujene, limonene, beta­carophyllene, linalool, borneol, acetaldehyde, and some macrocyc1ic lactones.

Antitumorigenic properties have been noted in several animals. Decursinol angelate has cytotoxic and protein kinase C-activating activities. In mice with skin cancer, chalcones from the root extract of A. keiskei exhibited potent antitumorigenic properties. Extracts from A. archangelica reduced the mutagenic effects of thiotepa in mouse bone marrow cells, and A. radix increased the production of tumor necrosis factor in mice. Several furanocoumarin compounds extracted from the root of A. japonica showed inhibitory activity against human adenogastric carcinoma (MK-1) cell growth .

Immunostimulatory properties were observed in vitro with angelan, a polysaccharide isolated from A. gigas. Angelan increased expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, and interferongamma, resulting in activation of macrophages and natural killer cells involved in nonspecific immunity.

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties have also been noted.

Compounds isolated from the roots of A. pubescens inhibited centrally and peripherally mediated inflammatory substances. In vitro data show prominent inhibitory effects on both 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase .

Coumarin osthole inhibits platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro . A. sinensis significantly inhibited thromboxane A 2 formation and mildly affected prostaglandin 1 2 production in animals compared with aspirin.

Angelica polysaccharide has been shown to promote the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in healthy and anemic mice .

Coumarins and ferulic acid from A. dahurica root have antimicrobial actions . Two chalcones isolated from A. keiskei also showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria.

The aqueous extract of A. sinensis given LV. decreased myocardial injury and the incidence of premature ventricular contractions and arrhythmias induced by myocardial reperfusion. Puranocoumarins inhibited the in vitro binding of diazepam to CNS benzodiazepine receptors in rat cells .

A. sinensis and nifedipine improved pulmonary function and decreased mean arterial pulmonary pressures in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pulmonary hypertension. A. polymorpha has been found to selectively inhibit the production of allergic antibodies in asthmatics.

Uterine stimulant effects in the mouse and relaxation of the trachea in animals have been documented.

Polysaccharides isolated from the root of A. sinensis demonstrated dose-dependent protective effects on G1 mucosa in rats administered the gastric irritants ethanol and indomethacin.

Antihypertensive effects were observed in rats administered an ACE inhibitor compound extracted from A. keiskei .

A. astragalus reduced serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides to the same extent as pravastatin and further lowered levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in rats with puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome. Attenuation of renal injury also was observed, as evidenced by a reduction of the glomerular sclerosing index value in treated rats .

Reported Uses
This Chinese herb has been claimed to be of therapeutic usefulness for many disorders. It has been called a "cure-all" for gynecologic disorders and been promoted for such conditions as anemia, menstrual discomfort, and postmenopausal symptoms as a result of its purported estrogen-like effects and erythropoietic potential. No controlled studies have corroborated these benefits.

In a study of young women with leukorrhagia and insufficient luteal function, angelica root extract. in combination with several other Chinese herbs, regulated the menstrual cycle and reduced the severity of leukorrhagia.

Other claims include angelica's ability to improve circulation in the extremities; to treat anemia, backaches, and headaches; and to relieve asthma, eczema, hay fever, and osteoporosis.

Most studies of angelica have been conducted on animals, making it difficult to determine therapeutic benefits in humans.

No consensus exists. Studies conducted with angelica used various concentrations of extracts, aqueous solutions, and powders, making identification of standardized dosage difficult.

Adverse Reactions
CV: hypotension (from coumarins derived from A. pubescens).

Hematologic: increased risk of bleeding (when used with such drugs as heparin and warfarin).

Skin: phototoxicity (effect of furanocoumarins).

Warfarin: Significantly prolonged PT when A. sinensis is administered with warfarin. Avoid use with angelica.

Contraindications And Precautions
Avoid using angelica in pregnant or breast-feeding patients because of potential stimulant effects on the uterus.

Special Considerations
Monitor the patient taking angelica for signs of bleeding, especially if he is also taking an anticoagulant.

Inform the patient that using angelica may increase the risk of cancer.

Urge the patient to promptly report signs of allergic reactions.

Advise the patient to take precautions against direct sun exposure while taking angelica preparations.

Points of interest

A atropurpurea last appeared in the USP around 1860.

Concerns have been raised regarding the potential carcinogenic risk of angelica, which led the International Fragrance Commission to recommend a limit of O. 78% angelica root in commercial preparations of suntan lotions.

Although angelica is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, its efficacy appears to be supported only by anecdotal evidence. The herb has been studied extensively in animal models, but scientifically valid human studies are lacking. Until more conclusive data are available, it is difficult to justify the therapeutic use of angelica for specific disorders.

Benzoin - Some Benefits on Usage of Benzoin
Taxonomic Class

Common Trade Names
Multi-ingredient preparations: Balsam of the Holy Victorious Knight, Friar's Balsam, Jerusalem Balsam, Pfeiffer's Cold Sore Preparation, Turlington's Balsam Of Life, Ward's Balsam

Common Forms
Available as compound benzoin tincture USP, which contains 10% benzoin, 2% aloe, 8% storax, 4% tolu balsam, and 75% to 83% alcohol. Benzoin is also an ingredient in cold sore creams, lotions, and ointments.

Benzoin is a balsamic resin usually obtained by wounding the bark of Styrax benzoin trees that are at least 7 years old. It can also be obtained from the bark of Styrax paralleloneurus and Styrax tonkinensis.

Chemical Components
Sumatra benzoin (S. benzoin) is composed primarily of benzoic and cinnamic acids and their esters. It also contains small quantities of benzaldehyde, phenylpropyl cinnamate and benzyl cinnamate, styracin, styrene, and vanillin. Sumatra benzoin yields at least 75% of alcohol soluble extract; Siam benzoin (S. tonkinensis) yields at least 90%. In the United States, either extract can be used in compound benzoin tincture.

Benzoin tinctures possess mild bactericidal properties, but the efficacy and spectrum of these properties are poorly described. Benzoin, which has a characteristic balsamic aroma, also has adhesive properties and mucosal protectant activity.

Reported Uses
Benzoin has been used for more than 100 years, but most uses are anecdotal and have not been systematically studied. The agent has been applied topically as an antiseptic and a wound adhesive. A comparative trial of compound benzoin tincture and gum mastic found mastic to be a superior wound adhesive that was better tolerated than benzoin tincture . Benzoin tincture has been painted on the skin before applying adhesive tape for supportive dressings.

The American Dental Association accepts benzoin tincture as a topical mucosal protectant and for symptomatic relief of pain from canker sores, gingivitis, and oral herpetic lesions .

Benzoin has been used in cough and cold products for its claimed expectorant properties. Compound benzoin tincture has been added to hot water to create a volatile steam inhalation, but this may be no more effective than unmedicated water vapor .

For mucosal protection, in adults and children older than age 6 months, a few drops applied topically no more than once every 2 hours. The tincture should be used in infants only under medical supervision.

For steam inhalation, about 5 ml of compound benzoin tincture added to 1 pt of hot water. Alternatively, place the tincture on a handkerchief for inhalation.

Adverse Reactions
GI: gastritis, GI hemorrhage if ingested .

Respiratory: asthma (inhalation).

Skin: contact dermatitis, urticaria.

Other: allergic reactions.

None reported.

Contraindications And Precautions
Inhalation of benzoin products is contraindicated in patients with reactive airway diseases, such as asthma. Benzoin is toxic if taken internally. Use products that contain benzoin cautiously in atopic patients or in those who are prone to contact dermatitis.

Special Considerations
Monitor closely for gastritis and GI hemorrhage in patients taking benzoin internally. Advise against oral consumption.

Monitor use of benzoin in infants closely.

Alert Observe for signs and symptoms of allergic reaction, particularly in atopic patients.

Inform the patient that topical use can discolor the skin and cause contact dermatitis.

Advise the patient with asthma, atopy, or contact dermatitis to avoid using benzoin.

Inform the patient that volatile steam inhalation of benzoin is not effective; unmedicated water vapor may be used instead.

Most clinical data regarding the use of benzoin products come from case reports and a long history of use in numerous specialities. As a wound adhesive, alternative products are superior to benzoin . As a skin and mucosal protectant, other agents are at least as effective as benzoin and cause fewer allergic reactions . The inhalation of compound benzoin tincture has been used for many years but has never been systematically studied. Inhaled steam is probably at least as effective . Antiseptics with extensively studied effectiveness are preferred over benzoin tinctures. Health care providers should be aware of the potential risk of allergic reactions, especially in atopic patients.

Butcher's Broom Herb - Dosage and Useful Properties
Taxonomic Class

Common Trade Names
Multi-ingredient preparations: Butcher's Broom Extract 4:1, Butcher's

Broom Root, Hemodren Simple, Ruscorectal

Common Forms
Capsules: 75 mg, 110 mg, 150 mg, 400 mg, 470 mg, 475 mg

Also available as liquid extract and tea.

Butcher's broom is extracted from the leaves, rhizomes, and roots of Ruscus aculeatus, a low-lying evergreen of the lily family. It is native to the Mediterranean region but also grows in southern United States.

Chemical Components
The major active components of butcher's broom are the steroidal saponins ruscogenin and neoruscogenin. Coumarins, flavonoids, glycolic acid, sparteine, and tyramine have also been isolated.

In a study of dog veins, the saponins in butcher's broom produced vasoconstriction by directly activating post junctional alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors .

Studies with animals have evaluated the effect of R. aculeatus on the diameter of arterioles and venules and the effect of local changes in temperature on venous responsiveness to R. aculeatus . Clinical trials suggest that a Ruscus preparation relieved symptoms of chronic phlebopathy of the legs . The extract of this plant possesses anti-inflammatory properties as well.

Reported Uses
Butcher's broom is claimed to be helpful in treating arthritis, hemorrhoids, leg edema, peripheral vascular disease, and varicose veins. It has also been used as a diuretic and a laxative. Human clinical data to support these claims are limited.

For venous phlebopathy in the lower limbs, the dosage of butcher's broom tested in humans was 99 mg P.O. daily (in combination with ascorbic acid and hesperidin).

Adverse Reactions
None reported.

Anticoagulants: May increase effects of these drugs. Monitor closely.

Antihypertensives: May reduce effects of alpha blockers, such as prazosin, doxazosin, terazosin; reduces effectiveness of therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Avoid administration with butcher's broom.

MAO inhibitors: May cause hypertensive crisis from tyramine in butcher's broom. Avoid administration with butcher's broom.

Contraindications And Precautions
Butcher's broom is contraindicated in pregnant or breast -feeding patients; effects are unknown. Use cautiously in patients with hypertension or BPH or those who are receiving alpha antagonist therapy.

Special considerations
Inform the patient that more effective agents exist to treat his disease and that long-term effects of butcher's broom are unknown.

Caution the patient with circulatory disorders that butcher's broom may interfere with other drugs he is taking.

Advise women to avoid using butcher's broom during pregnancy or when breast-feeding.

Points of Interest
Butchers in Europe and the Mediterranean at one time used the leaves and twigs of this plant to scrub chopping blocks clean, hence the name butcher's broom,

Butcher's broom possesses vasoconstrictive properties, but clinical data about these effects are limited. One study suggests that butcher's broom is beneficial in patients with chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. The study involved only 40 patients and R. aculeatus was used in combination with hesperidin and ascorbic acid.

Butcher's broom may be well tolerated, but additional studies are needed to evaluate its efficacy in treating venous disease and other vascular conditions. No clinical data support the use of butcher's broom for treating arthritis or hemorrhoids.

Bael (Bel) and Its Uses and Benefits
How it looks - It is a medium-sized deciduous tree with typical straight sharp thorns at the axil and yellowish brown furrowed bark. The leaves are also notedly trifoliate and aromatic while the flowers are greenish white and sweet scented. The fruits are globose and woody with yellowish rind with numerous seeds.

What we use - Roots, leaves, fruits (usually unripe ones are used)

What it does -

Roots - Astringent, febrifuge

Leaves - Astringent, laxative, febrifuge, expectorant

Unripe fruits - Astringent, digestive stomachic

Ripe fruits - Astringent, aromatic, cooling, febrifuge, laxative and tonic (to the heart & brain)

Treatment Through Herbal Medicines
In piles - Make a decoction of the roots of Bael and seat the piles' patient in a basin filled with the lukewarm decoction such that the pile masses are immersed in it. Do this everyday for 20-30 minutes and watch the astringent Bael gradually shrink the pile masses.

In dysentery and diarrhoea - Paste the pulp of an unripe bael fruit with a few sesame seeds and mix some thick yogurt in it. Take this preparation hvice a day to arrest mucous and blood-accompanied loose stools.

In blood accompanied stools - Mix the powder of the dry pulp of bael fruit with some saunph seeds and honey and drink 2 tsp of this mixture with some rice wash.

In foul body odour - Apply the juice of fne fresh leaves of bael fruit all over the body everyday to prevent unpleasant odour emitting from the body. The astringent nature of the juice closes sweat pores and prevents excessive perspiration causing foul odour.

In vomiting - Make a decoction of bael roots and drink it with a tsp of honey to suppress vomiting.

In bleeding piles - Mix the pulp of a bael fruit with a glass of butter milk for relief from bleeding piles.

In swelling - Whether of the feet or any part of body, swellings can be helped by taking half a glass of the juice of baelleaves with the powder of a few black peppers.

In colic pains - In pains due to undigested food material, take the powder of the dry pulp of bael fruit with a little jaggery for digestion and to subside pain.

In typhoid and seasonal fevers - Take a tsp of powder of the dry pulp of bael fruit to bring down temperature.

In decomposing wounds - Paste the leaves without adding water. Apply this on wounds which are pus-oozing with great benefit.


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